Handy Breastfeeding Terms

Below find a small glossary of breastfeeding terms you will find helpful. Pass this on to those in your life with whom you will be talking. Other breastfeeding mommies will be aware of these terms. However, grandmas, aunts, and others may not. I have added a few I have found helpful. Please send me others you may use. This is a language shared among new mommies and we want everyone to enjoy it!


While every mom’s breastfeeding journey is unique, many words and phrases make a sudden appearance in everyone’s new vocabulary. Some of these are easy to understand, others may be a little confusing. Here, we’ve compiled some of our favorite, most confusing, and most important words every nursing mom should know.

  • Areola, n. the dark circle of pigmentation around the nipple
  • Breast Crawl, n. a newborn’s instinct to move toward the nipple and suckle
  • Cluster Feeding (also “bunch feeding”), n. a breastfeeding pattern with several feedings close together
  • Colostrum, n. a yellowish breast milk, rich in antibodies and high in protein, produced from the end of pregnancy through the early days of breastfeeding
  • Engorgement, n. an uncomfortable fullness of the breasts, experienced at any time during breastfeeding; most often within the 36 hours after delivery or when moms first wake up in the morning if their babies don’t feed at night
  • Exclusive Pumping, n. moms who bottle-feed their expressed breast milkto their babies
  • Expressed Breast Milk, n. breast milk, siphoned from the breast by hand or pump, which is used for storage or feeding
  • Extended Breastfeeding, n. the act of nursing a child past for more than a year
  • Feeding on Demand, n. the practice of feeding at the first sign of baby’s hunger cues rather than on a set schedule.
  • Foremilk & Hindmilk, n. terms for the milk produced at the beginning (foremilk) and end (hindmilk) of a particular feeding
  • Flanged Lips, n. a sign of proper latch: lips curled outwards while nursing, resembling fish lips
  • Galactagogues, n. foods, medications, or supplements that increase milk supply, such as fenugreek, blessed thistle, alfalfa, or oatmeal
  • Inverted Nipples, n. nipples that cave inward, rather than protruding fully
  • Kangaroo Care, n.: a type of bonding that involves skin-to-skin contact and baby-wearing to stimulate feelings of closeness and well-being.
  • Latch, n. the way a baby attaches to the nipple
  • Let-Down (also “letdown” or “let down”), n. a hormonal reaction to breast stimulation that causes muscles to bring milk into the ducts
  • Lip Tie, n. a tight frenulum (skin between the lip and the gum) that impedes breastfeeding
  • Liquid Gold, n. breast milk
  • Mastitis, n. an inflammation of the breast tissue, usually caused by an infection, often identified by flu-like symptoms and a rash
  • Milk Blister (also “bleb” or “nipple blister”), n. an open milk duct covered by skin, pain may persist several days or weeks
  • Nipple Shield, n. a silicone cover for the nipple that may help with breastfeeding issues
  • Overactive Let-Down, n. a forceful ejection of milk from the breasts during feeding that may cause issues while nursing
  • Oxytocin & Prolactin, n. the hormones responsible for milk production
  • Pre-Feeding and Post-Feeding Weights, n. a method used to calculate how much milk has been consumed in a feeding session.
  • Plugged Ducts (also “Clogged Ducts” or “Milk Stasis”), n. a backup in a milk duct resulting from milk being produced faster than it is expressed
  • Reverse-Cycling, n. a period when a baby nurses more at night than during the day
  • Rooting, n. an active sign of hunger evident as a baby moves the head around looking for a nipple to latch on to
  • Thrush, n. a yeast infection causing white patches on an infant’s tongue and mouth, can also cause pain in the mother’s breasts or nipples
  • Tongue Tie, n. a condition where the lingual frenulum (tissue connecting the tongue to the floor of the mouth) is short and tight, restricting tongue movement and breastfeeding ability.

In addition:

Dream Feed: Providing bottled breastmilk to a sleeping baby to prolong her sleep time. Do not pick baby up.

Happy Valentines Day!!!

It is that time of year again! The time when hearts and roses appear, chocolates are everywhere, and expectations run high!! What wonderful plans do you have for the special folks in your life? There are a million special ways you can let ‘your people’ know you love them. Creativity is the name of the game.

The cost of roses, really all flowers, triple in honor of this day. So unless you are wealthy or it is a must try something else. Go the the garden section at your Lowes or Home Depot and purchase a beautiful flowering plant. Then go to Dollar Tree and find a basket or pot in which you can wrap it. With a bow and a lovely card it will be equally as nice as those expensive flowers. Plus it can be planted in the garden and continue to be beautiful all season!!! Great idea!!

Purchase your honey’s favorite chocolates during the after Christmas sales. You can find many great deals in candies that are not wrapped in Christmas paper and will present beautifully in a cute gift bag, cosmetic bag, or some other item your love would enjoy!

Gift Coupons are creative and such a fun way to share your love. Type up coupons on your computer. A back rub, breakfast in bed, home cooked meal, night out, trash take out, baby sitting offer, etc., etc., etc. In a darling jar, cute package or even a paper bag this one can be a great hit! If your little ones are giving gifts this is a great one!!! Let them come up with the ideas! You will be amazed at the fun things they have in mind!!

Dinner out on Valentines Day is nearly impossible. Plan your celebration for another evening. Or, make a special meal at home. Candles, wine, hors’surves, the works!! You can have so much fun, Find some great recipes on line. My favorite chief on line is Chief Jean Pierre, He is hoot and I have loved the recipes I have learned from him. He is on YouTube. Just enter Chief Jean Pierre in the subject line and the sky is the limit!!!

Share a memorable time with those you love. It doesn’t have to be expensive and you will all know how very much you are loved!


Staying Warm Without Heat

Our friends in the south have been buffeted about by crazy storms forever. This is just one of the things you learn to live with if you live in Florida, Louisiana, parts of Texas, etc. For the rest of us there are times when we are without power and have to be creative. Here is a snug suggestion for such times:

Happy Thanksgiving!!!!!

We have the privilege to live in America!! Our Thanksgiving Day comes to us with a wonderful history of gratefulness. Gratefulness to God, who brought the pilgrims across the Atlantic Ocean during the storms of winter. Gratefulness to the American Indians who helped the pilgrims plant crops and grow food for themselves. Gratefulness for a new land that allowed religious freedom which was the reason they came in the first place.

At this time of year, before the Christmas holiday bustle, it is very appropriate to remember the innumerable things for which we are thankful. America has always been a nation of thankfulness and generosity. This comes from our Judeo-Christian heritage. The understanding there is a God who creates order and normality in the universe gives us a foundation from which to view the world.

Look around today and focus on the good things in your life. Take a moment to be grateful. It will greatly affect your state of mind. Write down some of the things for which you are grateful: your family, the other people in your life, your pets, the conveniences you are able to enjoy, the out of doors. The list goes on and on.

Christmas, the Holiday’s, Celebrations Are Coming!!!

Usually this time of year I am sending you many suggestions for gifts you and baby can give to friends and relatives. I have provided url codes for framed photos of baby, molded clay, for making hand and foot print ornaments, projects for your older kids and more!!! We had a wedding this week. Our daughter married the man of her dreams. It was lovely and much awaited. We are exhausted!!! Ha! Ha!

I am going to recommend you look back in my blogs to October and November in years past. There will be many ideas for you and your family to enjoy. My recommendation: begin ordering now. In order to receive your items, add the photos and hand prints, and get them off in the mail you need time!!! Adding stress to your life is not the best. So order your projects today and get them out. Then you are free to enjoy the holidays!!! Your gifts will find wonderful places in the hearts of those you love, and you will be happy!

Netflix Twelve Part Series    ‘Babies’ Episode: #12 Toddlers

Researchers reveal the social skills toddlers naturally possess, abilities ultimately separating humans from other species.

The scientists in this episode research inner motivations and understanding of toddlers of differing ages.  Their results surprised them.  At much earlier ages than expected children understand someone is in need and want to help.  These findings coincide with the findings of the previous episode when very young children were shown puppet shows of helpers and hinderers.

It is fascinating to see in research what parents are aware of in daily life.  Children model the behavior they witness.  

Alison Gopnik, Professor of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley, USA

When do children begin to understand that others like things differing from their own preferences?  Ms. Gopnik’s son understood at 2 that she liked a pineapple dessert while he did not. Toddlers are very good at reading facial expression, voice intimation, etc.

Experiment:  Will babies give the treat the adult likes or the treat they like?

The older children, 16 – 24 months of age will give you the one you like even if they don’t like it.  They have a clearer idea of the desires of others.   70% of the time they give you what you like.

Felix Warneken,  Associate professor of Psychology. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Cooperation, team work, altruistic behavior, for the good of others: What is the origin of these behaviors?  To what extent would toddlers help?  They have the desire to help and support from very young ages.  Warneken ran several experiments.  He found even chimpanzees have a communal group understanding of helping each other.  This is true in many species.

Laura Schulz, Professor of Cognitive Sciences. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts,   USA

How do children learn so much so quickly? Kids watch adults doing things.  How hard are adults trying to accomplish the task they are workin on?  Kids learn how hard to try.  Then children try.  They have a different toy/project so they can’t imitate.  They have to try themselves. The adults leave. How long do the kids persist?  He keeps trying…..  When he saw adults struggle they were highly motivated to keep trying.  The toddlers took the ques from adults.  Working very hard when the adults did!  When older these kids work harder for their goals.

We have housed international students over the years. When beginning on this journey we were told American youth are approximately 5 years more mature than students of their same age from other countries. This information has proven true. Why are American children more mature than kids of the same age from other places? I believe it is that American children are expected to carry their own weight around the house at younger ages. They are expected to clean up their rooms. put away dirty clothing, make their beds, dress themselves and more. In other countries others are hired to do these things for children. Because of this they do not learn to do them. There are also countries where the mothers take care of these chores. How then do children learn them?

Shared social community is obvious even to young children.  Families teach these values and behaviors to their children.  Children learn to practice these altruistic behaviors from birth.  Model well, your children are always watching.

Netflix Twelve Part Series    ‘Babies’ Episode:#11 Nature and Nurture

Resolving the debate of nature vs nurture three scientists show how genetics and environment work together as infants discover who they are.

The long-term debate over which is more important in child development, nature vs nurture is very interesting.  In this episode scientist weigh in on both sides of the argument.  

Philippe Rochat, Professor of Psychology, Emory Infant and Child Lab, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. USA

What is going on in the minds of infants?  What will guide them.  How do they become aware of their own thoughts and inclinations? The Mirror Mark Test ~ the child touches himself in the mirror, seeing it as himself.  Before 18 mos. does the child have any self awareness? Babies look into a mirror in a box as their own reflection.  Then they look at a person mimicking them.  Baby smiles more at the other than self.

Robert Plomin. Professor, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychological & Neuroscience,  King’s College, London, UK. Professor Plomin participated in the famous twins research studying 15,000 sets of twins followed 25 years to understand the biological impact of many things.

1994 – 2019.   The Twins Early Developmental Study. Nature. (Genetics). Vs Nurture (Environment)

15,000 pairs of twins.  Computerized birth records became available in 1993. 55M bits of information.  Tested every year for 25 years.   Personality tests.  Data from parents, the twins, their teachers     Tested for:  temperament traits. Early appearing personality traits:  fearfulness & anger, activity level, sociability & shyness, & impulsivity – attention span. All traits studied: verified genetic similarities in traits especially in identical twins. This study provided information on the largest number of twins ever researched.  The breakthrough was the year before the study began birth records were digitalized.  This allowed massive retravel of records never possible prior to this time.

Maria A Gartestein, Professor of the Gartestein Temperament Lab, Washington State University. Washington, USA

Studied temperament as a basic building block of personality. Does temperament develop over time?  In 2017 this study began with babies 4 mos of age..  How does positive expression between moms and babies, warmth, interaction between them affect their development?  Babies returned at 6 months.  Reevaluated every two months during the first year.

The experiment: Show strange dramatic unusual masks to babies, record their reactions.  Looking for eyes enlarging, brows moving, crying.  Moms are next them to help if needed.   Began at 4 months of age.  Largest changes at 8, 10, & 12 months.  

Findings:  After 8 mos. babies became more aware, resulting in stronger reactions. Moms who were more sensitive to their babies, connection, etc. had babies who were less fearful and negatively reactive.

Netflix Twelve Part Series ‘Babies’ Episode: #10 RELATIONSHIPS

A coy smile, a puppet show and a pointed finger lead to discoveries in  how babies get along with others using humor, morality, and shared experience.

Study of morality, judging similarities with others, social interaction.

Vasudevi Reddy, Professor of Developmental and Cultural Psychology, University of Portsmouth, UK.            

Infants have great interest in relationship, connecting, interacting.

Ms. Reddy studied 5 babies from 7 weeks to 5 months of age.  She filmed them in 3 situations in an effort to chart when they connected.  She used coy smiles as her mean for the study.  

Kiley Hamlin. Associate professor of Phycology. University of British Columbia,  Vancouver, Canada Questions:  When do children begin understanding those who are helpful or not helpful. This realization is earlier than previously believed.

       Puppet shows were presented as a way to chart infant reaction. This is because babies enjoyed watching them and responding. Climbing character tried and tried to climb the hill. Second character comes and pushed him up the hill – helper. Third character pushed the character down the hill – hinderer

Kids have to choose their favorite by looking at him or touching his puppet.  No 6 month subject studied chose the hinderer. 10 months old’s 2 of 16 chose hinderer. 3 month old’s all chose helper Morality is not all learned, we are born with it!!!  Profound realization!!!!! When do babies start identifying with a particular person, someone like them? Babies were provided graham crackers or green beans. The test puppet chooses same food as the infant. This indicates he is a friend When puppet was not selecting the same food as the subject it was not interpreted he was on team. Infants are aware early who joins them and who doesn’t.

One of the puppets looses his ball the helper returnes it. Then they see their puppet play with someone who takes the ball away. Babies morality presents as those similar to me.  Not mature morality.  TEAM BASED MORALITY. People help others, animals not so much.

Melinda Carpenter, Professor Developmental Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews Scotland, UK

This study was most interested in prelingual gestures in babies. We share with others, information, experiences, social things, etc. The gesture of pointing is major.

Our babies grow up and connect with the world early. They want to be a part of everything!!!  They are so amazed at everything they see!!! Babies point allot in the beginning, before words!

See things, pointing, emotions and interests that can be shared. 12 month old babies being pointing. Why?   Share?  Something else?

            Experiment: Babies point at the puppet  How many times does baby point?

  1. When experimenter does not respond to the puppet their response becomes more mellow. Not happy
  2. Second group, the adult looks only at the puppets, no comment to the kids. The babies tried to get him to connect with their points.  Then stopped pointing, when he responded, they are happy.

As previously discovered in other videos in this series, babies are far more developed at younger ages than previously believed.

Netflix Twelve Part Series ‘Babies’ Episode: #9 SENSES

Several experts make sense of how babies touch, taste, and see as they embark on a sensory journey shaping the rest of their lives.

Our five senses create the foundation of connection with other humans.  Sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell fill our memoires with the skin and bones of life.  We learn about the wonders of our world through experiencing them at this innate level.   Little is known about how this awareness develop in babies.  In this segment researchers work in several different capacities to learn how babies experience our wonderful senses!


Nathalie Maitre, Director NICU Follow up Programs NICU Developmental Therapies Nationwide Children’s Hospital, USA.  Began studying there 2015.

Recent research in skin to skin contact immediately after birth has provided physical proof holding baby up against either mommy or daddy’s skin regulates his blood sugars, helps his body stabilize body temperature, causes his bacteria to correlate with moms, and on and on.  Ms. Maitre, introduced above, found all these to be true when her son was born at 24 weeks gestation weighing 2 lbs.  She now supervises studies in these areas at the BBOP Lab. Baby Brain Optimization Project.  Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.

The purpose of the BBOP Lab. is to research preterm and developing infants as well as toddlers, leaning how they experience our five senses.  They conducted the first study including both infants and their mothers.  Brain sensory helmets were put on baby and mom to measure how their brains responded to the same stimulus.

Mom would smile at her baby close to her, but not touch or talk to her.  Measurements were recorded as well a videoed.   Then mom would smile at her baby and touch her.  Measurements taken.  Third interaction mom would smile, touch, and speak to her baby.  Again, measurements taken.  It was found the layering of the three responses in unison created the greatest responses in babies.

Further testing was done in and effort to understand whether or not strong responses could be created with a surrogate stand-in.  Mom’s baby carrier, with her scent, was used to hold baby.  In addition, a recording of mom singing a song was recorded to play when baby sucked his pacifier.  

Result: Every touch, whisper, sound, taste, smell grows emotional connection and health in baby.

Pawan Sinah, Professor Neuroscience  Massachusetts  Institute of Technology USA.  Boston, Massachusetts

Study of visual neuroscience.    Effortlessly we open our eyes and see.

How do babies learn to see?    His son wore a webcam as a 2 week old infant. The understanding is babies see blurry at birth, eyes don’t focus.   90% of all scenes in the video were faces.  Learning to read and embrace facial expression is a huge part of human communication.  Result:  Babies are spending nearly their first year learning this. More studies concentrated on taste and how babies are affected by what their mother’s eat during pregnancy.  Very interesting.  Julie Mennella. Biological Psychologist Philadelphia, PI,   Monell Chemical Senses Center.

Netflix Twelve Part Series ‘Babies’ #8 MOVEMENT

From curiosity to understanding researchers unveil surprising ways infants learn how to anticipate and respond to the movements of others.

The study of movement, how we learn as humans to acclimate to our environment, affects everything about us.  How do babies learn?  How early are babies aware of patterns and experiences in their lives?  What are the best stimuli for infants?

These and many other questions are addressed in this segment on movement.  Using the “blank slate” understanding of years past no longer applies.  Research in many countries establishes babies are magnificent observers and are aware from birth!  It is only their inability to speak and their physical development that has masked this.  

Audrey Van Der Meer. Professor Neuropsychology, Norwegian University of Science & Technology    Trodenheim, Norway

Ven Der Meer wanted to research the intent of baby movement.  Question: At what age do infants began intentionally moving?  

Her research began with Neonate Subjects: Babies under 24 days of age.  She and her team ran thorough studies filming babies watching their hands.  They used weights and pulleys to create tension in movement, proving intent.  When a baby pulled against the weights to look at his hand this was seen as intention.  The non-viewed hand lay dormant during the experiments.  This was proven through further experimentation.  Van Der Meer submitted  the findings of each of her three different studies before the governing board in Norweigh approved and funded her results/research.

Pierre-Yvves Oudeyer. Research Director, Inria Institute for Digital Sciences, Bordeaux, France. 

What challenges babies/children to learn new things of their environment? Oudeyer developed mini robots having intelligence/learning mechanisms. 

First group of two robots:  learning to move a ball.  Learned nothing. Second group:  Free to exercise their curiosity     Learned to move ball.  After two and a half hours the second group had accomplished the goal.


Curiosity is open ended, it allows more knowledge and learning even in robots!  Exploring freely is most productive.

Gustaf Gredebac. Professor Developmental Psychology Upsalla, University Sweden We need to understand the movement of others to know where to walk, run, sit, stand. 

Premise:  “Babies are not born with the ability to anticipate, they have to learn this.”  Disproved this in his ball to bucket experiment

12 month olds understand this.   6 months olds do not

Banana feeding experiment.  4 month olds, 6 month olds, 12 month olds. Machines measure eye tracking in great detail. All babies were very attentive to the researchers feeding each other. Bananas.     Babies with much experience in being fed understood

Participants would put bananas into the mouth of the other, or on the hand of the other, than the other ate it off the hand. Older children had pronounced reaction to the change and unexpected nature of the event when food went to the hand.  Younger children did not.

The equipment also measured dealation of pupil

Later Gredeac understood that with each unique feeding all ages of babies reacted to the change in feeding behavior with surprise, even though the younger babies did not have a visible reaction.  They all knew something was different. Later, through thorough examination of the videos it was revealed that the pupils of younger infants responded by changing in size, a result not noticed in the preliminary evaluation.

“Being around these little people learning about life, the world, people is inspiring.”

Providing an experientially rich environment for your baby;  toys to touch, things to see, music to hear, tummy-time with places to move, other people, expands their horizons.